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Kamis, 08 September 2011

Prevention of Breast Cancer

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Recent data suggest that cancer deaths in women still showed the highest point. "Especially breast cancer ranked second leading cause of death in women, after cervical cancer," said Dr.. Asrul Harsal, Sp.PD, KHOM, in Jakarta, Tuesday (3 / 5).

However, according to him, breast cancer was not only the monopoly of women. Men can also experience it. Although the numbers are relatively small with only about one percent of the total Indonesian men present. Asrul also noted that breast cancer in women should be aware early on because it can lead to death. "The first breast cancer cells can grow into tumors of 1 cm within 8-12 years," he said.

Cancer cells are silent in the mammary gland, can then spread through the bloodstream throughout the body. As for when the deployment is going, until now not a lot of technology that is able to know. "Breast cancer cells can hide inside our bodies for years without the owner knowing, and suddenly become active malignant tumor or cancer."

Early Detection

The only effective way he thought until now only with detection as early as possible on the possibility of this disease. "Until now the only way to detect breast cancer is to make efforts Realize (breast self-examination-ed)," said Asrul again.

This action is said is very important, because nearly 85% of breast lumps are found by the patient himself. Even in normal women, the American Cancer Society recommends that women aged over 20 years to do Realize every three months, aged 35-40 years mammogram, over 40 years of checking up on the specialists, more than 50 years of routine checkups and mammography every year, and for women at high risk of more frequent doctor's examination and routine.

Asrul also describes the treatment of breast cancer which was agreed by oncologists in the world can go through several stages. At the stage of stage I, surgery and chemotherapy.

While on-stage phase II surgery, which is then followed by chemotherapy plus hormonal. If the stage has reached phase III operations must be carried out, followed by chemotherapy plus radiation and hormonal. "Meanwhile, when it had reached stage IV chemotherapy followed by radiation and hormonal," he added.

To an advanced stage, after the treated patients the longest life expectancy is four years. For patients who are in the process of treatment, surgical removal of the tumor performed in all parts of the breast, either right or left. Asrul also added that the women actually do not have to worry about the awkwardness of his body, because it is now available made from silicon breasts similar to original breast.


From the results of the WHO expert consultation report / FAO in 2003 stated that the total cancer cases between 2000 and 2020 in developing countries is estimated to soar up to 73%, whereas in developed countries increased to 29%. The warning should be a determination to apply the principle of prevention is better than cure. In addition to doing physical activity, preventive measures can also be done by implementing a balanced diet.

From epidemiological studies have revealed, the consumption of vegetables is more effective in lowering cancer risk compared with fruits. One of the vegetables that are effective in preventing cancer is a group of cabbage.

Included in the cabbage family Brassicaceae plants or better known as Cruciferae. Family includes a variety of vegetables, eg cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kale, Brussels sprouts, and turnips. Egg white cabbage or cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. Capita L) is a cabbage favored by society because it tastes good, fresh, crunchy and cheaper than with broccoli and cauliflower. These vegetables are not only familiar to an Indonesian vegetable dish, but also by Chinese residents of Singapore, even the average consumption reached 40 g / day or three times higher than the Americans. While the Japanese people prefer horseradish that the average intake of 55 g / day.

From some of the results of epidemiological studies, Park and Pezzuto (2002) in the journal Cancer and Metastasis Reviews (2002) reported that the consumption of cabbage such as white and red cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kale, turnips, celery and water can reduce the risk of type bergagai cancers, namely breast cancer, prostate, kidney, colon, bladder and lungs. In prostate cancer, consumption of three or more servings of these vegetables can lower risk than consumption of only one serving per week. Similarly, Brassica vegetable consumption of 1-2 servings / day has been reported to reduce breast cancer risk by 20-40%.

Carcinogens and detoxification

As is well known, in principle the three stages of growth of cancer cells, namely initiation; the early stages of the destruction of the DNA of cells, proliferation, and progression. At this early stage there are at least two factors that can cause cancer of the formation of free radicals and carcinogens.

Carcinogens are substances that can cause cancer. Most of the carcinogens in the food that enters the body is in the form procarcinogen. Furthermore, by phase I enzymes produced by the liver, the compound was cut into procarcinogen compounds are carcinogens that can damage / mutate a cell's DNA, which is the initiation stage of cancer growth.

Four procarcinogen commonly present in food is a mycotoxin, a toxin or toxins produced by fungi, especially Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium, and nitrosamida nitrosamines (N-nitroso compounds), found in fried bacon, dried meat, and cigarette smoke, polycyclic hydrocarbons aromatics that can form on meat that is roasted with charcoal embers kerosene, and amino acid pyrolysis products, such as heterocyclic aromatic amino acids, resulting from incomplete combustion during cooking fish or meat.

Since the formation of carcinogens from procarcinogen catalyzed by phase I, then the effective measures that can be done is to inhibit the enzyme production rate of phase I and phase II enzymes that spur is also produced by the liver to transport carcinogens out of cells.

The main mechanism of cancer chemopreventive by vegetable cabbage is explained in two ways: reduction in carcinogenicity conducted by both the enzyme that blocks the activation of the formation of metabolites of carcinogens and increase carcinogen detoxification.

Isothiosianat known compounds can play a role in the first step or both. Some of these compounds are inhibitors of tumorigenesis in various animal models, especially in lung cancer and esophagus that has been induced by tobacco products. Most prevention mechanisms through inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes. Cytochrome P450 1A2 is believed to catalyze N-oxidation of 4-aminophenyl, 2-nafthilamin, mycotoxins, and some aromatic acids, such as heterocyclic aromatic amino acids, potentially cancer-causing.

Paul Talalay, Johns Hopkins pharmacological sulforafan confirms that there is lots in broccoli (37-75 mg/100 g) are known to increase the production of phase II enzymes in the liver. This enzyme plays took carcinogenic substances produced from the compound procarcinogen and dragged him out of the cell.

In mice as experimental animals, Greenwald (1996) reported sulforafan can block the formation of breast cancer. Furthermore, he menggungkapkan dithiolthion synthesis called oltipraz can inhibit the growth of lung cancer, colon, mammary gland, urinary bladder in experimental animals. Dithiolthion compounds also found in broccoli, cauliflower and cabbage. These types of phytochemicals in action allegedly able to activate the enzymes produced by the liver, especially to reduce the toxicity of carcinogens in the bloodstream.

Wary of Chemicals

In the latest issue of the Journal of Applied Toxicology reported a chemical called 4-nonylphenol is a hazardous material that could trigger breast cancer in some rats. However, these laboratory experiments still need further studies to humans. Because what happens in mice may not necessarily occur in humans. For that community is expected to indirectly panik.Dr William Baldwin and his team from the University of Texas at El Paso and Clemson University in South Carolina found that 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) affect the performance of the hormone estrogen in some mice. With the intake of 4-NP was given in various doses, the body of the female rats experienced the growth of breast cancer. The majority of developing breast cancer within 32 weeks.

Having analyzed these chemicals turned out to stimulate the production of the hormone estriol estriol increased lever.Produksi make the cancer grow complex tissues in female mice. "Exposure to chemicals 4-NP in the long run will certainly trigger breast cancer," explained Dr.Baldwin as quoted by BBC News Online recently ini.Bahan 4-NP chemical that allegedly contained dangerous in paint, pesticides and cleaning products quite familiar with everyday human activity.

So far the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs has set the UK chemicals such as nonylphenol and bisphenol a toxic chemical that can affect the performance of the hormone. While the hormones estrogen and estriol had been long known to be associated closely with breast cancer. Estrogen is known as a receiver or a hormone receptor on breast cancer are easily overgrown. The higher performance of this hormone, the sooner the development of cancer.

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